just a brief summary of field characters / differences of the species in this Family (Smilaxaceae), not including female and male flowers, prophyllate or something complicated.
They are all woody climbers.
Heterosmilax japonica 肖菝葜: tendrils (卷鬚) well developed. Leaf blade (葉片) ovate-lanceolate (卵狀披針形) to subcordate(近心形). Inflorescence (花序) borne in axil of leaf or scalelike bract; umbels (繖形花序) of both sexes 20–50-flowered; berries (漿果) black.
Smilax astrosperma 灰葉菝葜: stem branched (分枝), sometimes sparsely prickly (刺), tendrils usually present. Leaf blade becoming grayish when dried, lanceolate (披針形), adaxially (lower leaf surface) (葉底) wrinkled along 3 concave main veins. Inflorescence usually of 1 umbel, umbels of both sexes 3–5-flowered; berries globose (球狀).
Smilax china菝葜 : stem branched, sparsely prickly, tendrils usually present. Leaf blade elliptic (橢圓形) to orbicular(圓形). Inflorescence borne in axil of young leaf, of 1 umbel﹔ erries red, globose, minutely white powdery (白色幼粉) .
Smilax corbularia 筐條菝葜 , 長葉菝葜: tendrils usually present. Leaf blade abaxially (葉面) glaucous , ovate (卵形) to oblong-elliptic (長橢圓形), leathery (皮革質), margin (葉緣) recurved (外反). Inflorescence of 1 umbel, umbels of both sexes 10–20- flowered; berries dark red, globose
Smilax glabra 土茯苓 , 光葉菝葜: stem branched, smooth. tendrils well developed. Leaf blade elliptic- or ovate-lanceolate, Inflorescence of 1 umbel, umbels of both sexes 10–30 or up to 60 flowered; berries blue-black, white powdery.
Smilax lanceifolia 暗色菝葜: branchlets (小枝) occasionally zigzagged (之字形). Leaf blade lanceolate to ovate-oblong, Inflorescence of 1(or 2) umbels, berries yellowish red to black, globose,
Smilax ocreata 抱莖菝葜: stem and branches usually sparsely prickly; tendrils commonly developed. Leaf blade ovate to elliptic, leathery. Inflorescence a raceme (總狀花序) of 2–4 or up to 7 umbels, umbels of both sexes not grouped, berries dark red, globose,
Smilax 菝葜: Perianth segments free
Heterosmilax 肖菝葜: Perianth segments united into a tube
Hope this helps.