Wing clipping 只剪去其中一隻翼上的初級飛羽，但是飛羽可以重生。
而 Pinioning 則是清除支持初級飛羽的骨、腱和肌肉，
鴛鴦夫婦受的可能只是 wing clipping。
http://www.ccac.ca/en/CCAC_Progr ... GLISH/V2_84/CHV.HTM
（摘自 Canadian Council on Animal Care 網頁）
simply involves cutting the primary feathers of one wing with a pair of shears. This procedure will make the bird unable to fly until it grows new flight feathers during the summer molt. Care must be taken not to clip primary feathers until their shafts are hard and white. This is strictly a temporary and not always total deterrent.
involves removal from the wing of that portion of the bone, tendons, and muscle which supports the primary feathers. It will render the bird permanently flightless and, therefore, should be performed only on those that are to remain permanently in captivity.
The procedure for pinioning necessitates the removal of most or all of the joined second and third metatarsal bones and adjacent tissues, but not the allula (spurious wing). The operation is least stressful and, therefore, best performed on birds under a week old; it should not be done between one and four weeks or when the quil, feathers are in the pulp stage.
The operation is more serious in older birds in which hemorrhage may need to be controlled and the procedure will involve cutting through more or less hardened bone, suturing and the practice of strict surgical asepsis (Ward and Batt, 1973). The use of a local anesthetic (Procaine HCI) injected proximal to the amputation line at the joint, about two minutes before commencing the operation, is recommended in large birds (geese, swans). Hemorrhage can be prevented by threading separate tape tourniquets medially between the 2nd and 3rd metacarpal interosseous space. Prior removal of all feather quills is a further important factor in hemorrhage control (Gandal, 1982).
澳洲 NSW Department of Primary Industries
Guidelines for the Pinioning of Birds in NSW